# Not all updates can be installed

If you run Ubuntu, you’ll notice that every now and then the Software Updater will provide you with a notification

Updated software is available for this computer. Do you want to install it now?

Except, when it does not, and instead displays a dialog

with a set of rather unintuitive buttons.

What is most disturbing is the list of possible causes, when it’s just a piece of software that checked all kinds of error conditions and should know what went wrong, and should be able to detail the error condition that prevents it from resuming its task, rather than the lazy “An error occurred”.

So I started to track the message down, and found:

• Software Updater is a Python/GTK application residing in /usr/bin/update-manager
• The application imports code from the UpdateManager package under /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/UpdateManager
• There, the MyCache class in Core/MyCache.py checks for various error conditions, and presents above dialog if something went wrong

It should be easy to adapt the code to display those error conditions. After a bit of trial and error, my version of the MyCache class displayed what kept the Software Updater from updating:

$./CheckUpdateManager.pyinitializingcheckingwould delete nodejs-docthat's all After removing the listed package $ sudo apt-get remove nodejs-doc

Software Updater displayed its usual window of updatable software components.

The script CheckUpdateManager.py is available in my Python repository.

# Fixing Error NU1202: Package Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Tools 6.0.1 is not compatible with netcoreapp2.2 (.NETCoreApp,Version=v2.2)

Migrating an AspNetCore web and database application from version 2.2 to current .Net 6, I came across an occasional build error:

error NU1202: Package Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Tools 6.0.1 is not compatible with netcoreapp2.2 (.NETCoreApp,Version=v2.2). Package Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Tools 6.0.1 supports: net6.0 (.NETCoreApp,Version=v6.0)

The error went away by unchecking the Option “Allow NuGet to download missing packages” under “Nuget Package Manager”, so I did not bother any longer.

Unfortunately, the error returned as soon as I ran an Azure Build Task on the project. The task failed with a simple message

##[error]Packages failed to restore

without any indication what exactly failed, what was to be restored, and, especially, why.

Going through the log file, I found that nuget tried to restore packages for .Net 6 (good), but also für .NetCore 2.2 (bad):

2022-04-06T13:59:20.3799748Z          Restoring packages for .NETCoreApp,Version=v6.0...
2022-04-06T13:59:20.4022386Z          Resolving conflicts for .NETCoreApp,Version=v2.2...
2022-04-06T13:59:20.4605261Z          Resolving conflicts for net6.0-windows7.0...
2022-04-06T13:59:20.5840720Z          Checking compatibility of packages on .NETCoreApp,Version=v2.2.
2022-04-06T13:59:20.5886337Z          Checking compatibility for microsoft.entityframeworkcore.tools-netcoreapp2.2-[6.0.1, ) 1.0.0 with .NETCoreApp,Version=v2.2.
2022-04-06T13:59:20.6014642Z          Checking compatibility for Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Tools 6.0.1 with .NETCoreApp,Version=v2.2.
2022-04-06T13:59:20.6016218Z      1>D:\DevOpsAgents\some\path\Project.Data.csproj : error NU1202: Package Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Tools 6.0.1 is not compatible with netcoreapp2.2 (.NETCoreApp,Version=v2.2). Package Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Tools 6.0.1 supports: net6.0 (.NETCoreApp,Version=v6.0) 

I also noticed that the first lines of the log stated

Info: .NET Core SDK/runtime 2.2 and 3.0 are now End of Life(EOL) and have been removed from all hosted agents. If you're using these SDK/runtimes on hosted agents, kindly upgrade to newer versions which are not EOL, or else use UseDotNet task to install the required version.
[command]"C:\Program Files\dotnet\dotnet.exe" restore D:\DevOpsAgents\some\path\Project.sln

By that time, I had verified multiple times that the projects do not use any obsolete 2.2 packages anymore. Where does the reference come from?

Then I remembered that I had experienced *some *sort of build errors, as stated above, and tried to run a dotnet restore on my development machine, disabling parallel execution and turning verbosity to full diagnostics:

dotnet restore my.project.sln --disable-parallel -v diag > dotnet-restore.log

The output is huuuge, so I piped it to a file.

Searching the generated log file for netcoreapp2.2, I finally located these lines

17:37:29.274 10:4>_GenerateDotnetCliToolReferenceSpecs: (Target-ID:26)
TaskParameter:ToolFramework=netcoreapp2.2 (Task-ID: 17)

I found the target _GenerateDotnetCliToolReferenceSpecs in the file C:\Program Files\dotnet\sdk\6.0.101\NuGet.targets, and it sets the DotnetCliToolTargetFramework build variable to a default value if it is not set already. The default value may be, depending on your installation, netcoreapp1.0, netcoreapp2.2, or some other version.

Which part of the project would trigger an action referring to dotnet CLI tools? It’s the EF Core Tools I needed to install for database migrations:

  <ItemGroup>
<DotNetCliToolReference Include="Microsoft.EntityFrameworkCore.Tools" Version="6.0.1"></DotNetCliToolReference>
</ItemGroup>

This project setting causes dotnet to install the referenced tool, but fails to do so because the default tool framework is incompatible.

This observed behavior is documented in this GitHub issue for NuGet:

• The DotnetCliToolTargetFramework will be interpreted by NuGet restore as the maximum target framework that tools can be restored for
• When restoring .NET CLI tools, NuGet will first download the package, and inspect it to see what it targets. It will choose the maximum target framework the package explicitly supports that is less than or equal to the DotnetCliToolTargetFramework

This GitHub issue showed me how to set the framework version, so I added to my csproj file the following lines:

  <PropertyGroup>
<DotnetCliToolTargetFramework>net6.0</DotnetCliToolTargetFramework>
</PropertyGroup>


and dotnet restore worked without errors.

# Disabling Loopback for Logitech G432 on Ubuntu

My old Logitech headset died a number of deaths (headband broken, cushion torn, finally cable broken), so I got myself a G432.

Unfortunately, using it in Teams under Ubuntu, I experienced an irritating loopback. Quickly took to the internets, but AskUbuntu was only of limited help.

For example, one answer suggested to use alsamixer, but that only completely muted the headset, not only the microphone loopback.

Another answer pointed me to a tool called HeadsetControl which allows exactly the control I wanted, and its Readme file even lists the model I have. Hurray.

I followed the instructions to install:

sudo apt-get install build-essential git cmake libhidapi-dev
git clone https://github.com/Sapd/HeadsetControl && cd HeadsetControl
mkdir build && cd build
cmake ..
make
sudo make install

After installation, I ran

$headsetcontrol -? Found Logitech G432/G433! Supported capabilities: * sidetone And tried to set “sidetone” to zero: headsetcontrol -s 0Found Logitech G432/G433!Failed to open requested device.HID Error: (null) Apparently, headsetcontrol requires sudo: sudo headsetcontrol -s 0Found Logitech G432/G433!Success! No more loopback! # Wordle cheat script An article on The Register linked to a GitHub shell script version of Wordle, and what caught my eye was that apparently a Linux installation contains a dictionary of English words in the file /usr/share/dict/words. If you are stuck in your daily Wordle, you can use this file to figure out solutions: Combine the commands (the last 3 are optional) with the respective letters filled in, separated by the pipe “|”: $ grep -E '^([a-zA-Z]){5}\$' /usr/share/dict/words | tr '[a-z]' '[A-Z]' | grep 'RU.E.' | grep -v '[TASDLMN]'RUPEE

The Angular Components documentation on its Google Maps component does not contain a working demo. Probably that’s because it would need to incorporate a YOUR_API_KEY value…

So I took the sample code from their README.md and README.md files and stitched together a working (uhm api key) sample on StackBlitz.

I noticed that while my code works find on my local machine, the StackBlitz version will raise an error in the console

This error is caused by the fact that the namespace google.maps is only created if the Google Maps API is loaded successfully.

Which brings me to error handling:

Essentially there are 3 cases that need to be dealt with:

• Success
• Invalid API key
• Invalid URL for the Google Maps API call

In case of an invalid API key, the <google-map> component raises the authFailure event

In case of an invalid URL, there is no script to initialize the google namespace, and you can check whether the objects window["google"] and window["google"]["maps"] exist.

The code is also available as a GitHub repository.

# ng update will update you automatically

During my Angular Update Odyssey, I found that the Angular Update Guide frequently states

ng update will do this automatically for you.
ng update should take care of this automatically.
ng update will migrate you automatically.

and I wondered when ng update would actually perform all those magic tasks, because I did not notice them.

Then I had the relevation, that ng update only performs the update tasks, if the package update was successful.

If the package update fails due to package dependency conflicts, then no update magic. Bad luck. You need to clean-up by yourself.

Analyzing the update log I keep (essentially a copy-and-paste from the npx update console output), this is what happens:

> npx @angular/cli@10 update @angular/core@10 @angular/cli@10

The installed local Angular CLI version is older than the latest stable version.
Installing a temporary version to perform the update.
Installing packages for tooling via npm.
Installed packages for tooling via npm.
Using package manager: 'npm'
Collecting installed dependencies...
Found 54 dependencies.

Updating package.json with dependency @angular-devkit/build-angular @ "0.1002.4" (was "0.901.15")...
Updating package.json with dependency @angular/cli @ "10.2.4" (was "9.1.15")...
...

UPDATE package.json (2249 bytes)

npm ERR! code ERESOLVE
npm ERR! ERESOLVE could not resolve
npm ERR!
npm ERR! While resolving: my.web.app@1.0.0
npm ERR! Found: @angular-devkit/build-angular@0.901.15
npm ERR! node_modules/@angular-devkit/build-angular
npm ERR!   dev @angular-devkit/build-angular@"^0.1002.4" from the root project
npm ERR!
npm ERR! Could not resolve dependency:
npm ERR! dev @angular-devkit/build-angular@"^0.1002.4" from the root project
npm ERR!
npm ERR! Conflicting peer dependency: @angular/compiler-cli@10.2.5
npm ERR! node_modules/@angular/compiler-cli
npm ERR!   peer @angular/compiler-cli@"^10.0.0" from @angular-devkit/build-angular@0.1002.4
npm ERR!   node_modules/@angular-devkit/build-angular
npm ERR!     dev @angular-devkit/build-angular@"^0.1002.4" from the root project


My interpretation of the log entries is that

• ng update fetches the dependencies of the new packages
• ng update writes package.json with new version numbers
• npm fails to install because of dependency conflicts
• ng update gives up, because the new packages are not there

If you’re lucky, the node_modules directory has been deleted, too.

So, for future updates, I will consider the following update strategy:

• run npx update
• if the update fails as above, revert the changes in package.json
– apparently there’s a reason npx update warns

Repository is not clean. Please commit or stash any changes before updating.

• run npx update --force
• commit changes
• fix broken dependencies

# mat- is not a known element

Updating an ancient Angular application to a more current version, I came across various warnings and error relating to the Angular Material framework.

Hidden behind the inconspicuous comment

Instead of importing from @angular/material, you should import deeply from the specific component. E.g. @angular/material/button

https://update.angular.io/?v=8.0-9.0

is the task of adding all kinds of import declarations to the modules containing components with Material elements or attributes.

In case of missing elements, the browser console will display a warning

‘mat-xxx’ is not a known element:
1. If ‘mat-xxx’ is an Angular component, then verify that it is part of this module.
2. If ‘mat-xxx’ is a Web Component then add ‘CUSTOM_ELEMENTS_SCHEMA to the ‘@NgModule.schems’ of this component to suppress this message.

In case of missing attributes, the browser console will display a warning

Can’t bind to ‘mat-xxx’ since it isn’t a known property of ‘<element>’

• First, an import declaration in the module’s .ts file:
import { MatXxxxModule } from '@angular/material/xxxx';
• Second, adding the MatXxxxModule in the imports array of modules in the @NgModule declaration

# Switching Sound Output between Headset and Speakers

How do you change the sound device a particular application is using for its audio output? I never bothered to think about this question, until the times of the shared home office.

True, in Windows you can change the default sound device, and an application that is started afterwards will use that device. But changing the sound device for a running application? It seems there is no built-in way to do that.

For Windows 7 and higher, I found the SoundSwitch applet (GitHub), which does just that. Located in the notification area, it lets you select the sound device the current application outputs its audio to. Simply click on its icon and select the device, or press a customizable hotkey.

For Ubuntu, I found Sound Switcher Indicator (GitHub, Blog). Upon installation, it can be accessed from the indicator area, and allows the selection of audio input and output devices.

Problems solved 😉

## Epilogue

During preparation of this post, I tried to figure out how SoundSwitch actually switches the audio device.

It turns out that it uses the function call SetPersistedDefaultAudioEndpoint() which is also used by an application called EarTrumpet (GitHub) that tags itself as “Volume control for Windows”, but also seems to allow switching audio devices.

A review of this application by Scott Hanselman indicates that the method and its interface are not officially documented:

Internal Audio Interface: IAudioPolicyConfigFactory

Gets them access to new APIs (GetPersistedDefaultAudioEndpoint / SetPersistedDefaultAudioEndpoint) in RS4 that let’s them ‘redirect’ apps to different playback devices. Same API used in modern sound settings.

Code here with no public API yet?

# Unsupported .Net SDK version error in Visual Studio Code extension

During the last couple of days, my VSCode installation greeted me with a strange error message on startup:

Installed .NET SDK version 6.0.100-preview.7.21379.14 is newer than the currently supported versions. Project build will not work. Please install .NET Core SDK version 3.1 and include a global.json in the project folder specifying the SDK version to use. More Information

VSCode is currently version 1.62.2 (it auto-updated today), and the extension version data is:
– Released on: 28.10.2021, 00:30:16
– Last updated: 28.10.2021, 00:32:34
– Identifier: ms-mssql.sql-database-projects-vscode

The More Information link points to the page Select the .NET version to use and does not seem to apply to installed VSCode extensions.

After a bit of digging, I found a couple of GitHub issues in the azuredatastudio project, which the SQL Database Projects extension is part of.

Issue 16766 deals with the behavior I noticed: SQL projects don’t build when active dotnet version is 6.0 preview

and confirmed by one comment:

Unfortunately, this affects Visual Studio Code as well. Annoyingly, the warning pops up even if no database project is loaded.

I tried changing the extension settings “Sql Database Projects: Net Core SDKLocation” (Full path to .NET Core SDK on the machine) but this did not get rid of the error message.

So I navigated to the install location of the VSCode extension, which can be found under
%userprofile%\.vscode\extensions\ms-mssql.sql-database-projects-vscode-0.13.0
(adjust version number) and tried to figure out how the error message is raised.

It turns out that the extension does not specifically query for the required dotnet version, but rather issues a “dotnet –version”, which returns the highest installed version number:

> dotnet --version
6.0.100-preview.7.21379.14

This version number is checked against the hard-coded upper limit of

t.maxSupportedNetCoreVersionCutoff = "6.0.0";

So I opened the file extension.js and tried to change this value to a SemVer higher than “6.0.100”, such as “7.0.0”, and restarted VSCode. And … the error message was gone!

Ok, so the extension was enabled, and VSCode does not throw an error when it did before, but would the extension still actually work?

So I created a new SQL Database project by Ctrl+Shift+P and selecting “Database Projects: Create Project From Database”, subsequently entering all the connection string data to connect to a database, which resulted in a .sqlproj file and generated CREATE TABLE statements in one .sql file per table.

I have this Windows server installed which hosts a couple of websites, and is really not doing much.

Every now and then I need to log in for some server operation, only to find the typical Windows Updates Pending notification. Every time this happens I think to myself, hey, I’d like to get some notification that there are updates available, without having to log in.

So I finally dug around the internets – well, as it turned out, the info was all on StackOverflow:

The result is a tiny PowerShell script called update-mailer.ps1, which queries the Windows Update Service and sends an email accordingly, and can be found on my GitHub PowerShell repository.

To run this script as a Scheduled Task, create a .cmd batch file containing the command

powershell.exe -ExecutionPolicy Bypass -File path\to\update-mailer.ps1

to bypass PowerShell’s restricted execution policy, and call the script from the task.