I started developing database applications before the idea of using data access layers or ORMs became mainstream. If you happened to develop under Delphi or Visual Studio in the early days, your application architecture may look something like this:
There is a database (or any kind of data store, such as files or XML or whatever), and an application that operates on the data.
Any change to the database structure cause a mess in the application code:
- where was a now-deleted table or field accessed or processed
- which views and procedures are accessed by the code
- some business logic implemented as stored procedures, some as application code
Time to separate implicit database access from application code (I’m looking at you, DataGrid, GridView and FormView with your magic DataSources!)
Enter the data access layer, which provides the application code (in my case, C#) a type-safe interface to the database:
This gets rid of the data usage and access problem: changes to the database structure are mirrored into the data access layer, and will cause compiler errors if a table or field has been removed or its data type has changed.
Still, the problem of implementing business functions in the database or in code remains, and the application needs to be aware or where the function is located.
The business layer encapsulated business logic wherever it is implemented, calling either business function in C# (object-oriented) or in the database (taking advantage of set-based operations or database-specific functionality). The application exchanges data with the business layer using the data contract classes.
As I mainly develop web applications, I notice that the object-oriented model occasionally breaks down in the front-end, since HTML is basically all-strings, and you need to parse and re-create your data access objects based on HTML data. Further, if you need to let your users edit hierarchically-structured data, you’ll soon get lost retrieving all your hierarchical business objects.
A user interface functions layer should handle the complexity of translating business objects to and from user interface objects:
Once you use a UI functions layer, it’s up to your aesthetic preferences whether you let the application still access the business data contracts, or pass everything through the UI data contracts. It is one additional step of mapping data, and you have been warned 😉
Notice that, although I have a strong background in MS development tools (Visual Studio, SQL Server), I tried to keep the ideas and diagrams as technology-agnostic as possible. It does not matter whether your business functions reside in a web service (of any kind) or just in a separate library (assembly), or what database (if any) you use.