The TypeScript homepage only refers to installing TypeScript in VS 2012, and the MS download page states
TypeScript for Visual Studio 2012 will install when Visual Studio 2012 is not installed, and provide the TypeScript compiler.
However, this answer on SO indicates a solution for VS2010:
- Download the installer package (most current is TypeScriptSetup.0.8.0.msi)
- Run the installer package to install the TypeScript compiler
- Extract the .msi using 7zip
- Copy or rename the extracted TypeScriptLS.vsix_File to TypeScriptLS.vsix
- Run the .vsix file
- The installer states it will install TypeScript support for VS 2010
- (Close and) Open Visual Studio 2010
After successful installation, Visual Studio provides:
- a new project type named “HTML Application with TypeScript”
- a new item type named “TypeScript File”
If you do not find the new types immediately, simply type “Type” in the search box of the Add New dialog.